Cyanide is very reactive, forming simple salts with alkali earth cations and ionic complexes of varying strengths with numerous metal cations; the stability of these salts is dependent on the cation and on pH. The salts of sodium, potassium and calcium cyanide are quite toxic, as they are highly soluble in water, and thus readily dissolve to form free cyanide. Operations typically receive cyanide as solid or dissolved NaCN or Ca(CN)2. Weak or moderately stable complexes such as those of cadmium, copper and zinc are classified as weak-acid dissociable (WAD). Although metal-cyanide complexes by themselves are much less toxic than free cyanide, their dissociation releases free cyanide as well as the metal cation which can also be toxic. Even in the neutral pH range of most surface water, WAD metal-cyanide complexes can dissociate sufficiently to be environmentally harmful if in high enough concentrations.
Cyanide forms complexes with gold, mercury, cobalt and iron that are very stable even under mildly acidic conditions. However, both ferro- and ferricyanides decompose to release free cyanide when exposed to direct ultraviolet light in aqueous solutions. This decomposition process is reversed in the dark. The stability of cyanide salts and complexes is pH dependent, and therefore, their potential environmental impacts and interactions (i.e. their acute or chronic effects, attenuation and re-release) can vary.
Metal cyanide complexes also form salt – type compounds with alkali or heavy metal cations, such as potassium ferrocyanide (K4Fe(CN)6) or copper ferrocyanide (Cu2[Fe(CN)6]), the solubility of which varies with the metal cyanide and the cation. Nearly all alkali salts of iron cyanides are very soluble, upon dissolution these double salts dissociate and the liberated metal cyanide complex can produce free cyanide. Heavy metal salts of iron cyanides form insoluble precipitates at certain pH levels.
The cyanide ion also combines with sulfur to form thiocyanate, SCN–. Thiocyanate dissociates under weak acidic conditions, but is typically not considered to be a WAD species because it has similar complexing properties to cyanide. Thiocyanate is approximately 7 times less toxic than hydrogen cyanide but is very irritating to the lungs, as thiocyanate chemically and biologically oxidizes into carbonate, sulfate and ammonia.
The oxidation of cyanide, either by natural processes or from the treatment of effluents containing cyanide, can produce cyanate, OCN–. Cyanate is less toxic than HCN, and readily hydrolyzes to ammonia and carbon dioxide.
General information: Cyanide contaminated in water, environment, industrial water or river water, soils.
Package content: 50 test/box
- Reaction bottle with special cap 1set
- Syringe 1 piece
- Reagent CN 1-1bottle
- Reagent CN 2-1bottle
- Reagent CN 3-1bottle
- Pasture pipette for handling reagent 1 piece
- Strip CN 1box
- Plastic bag for used paper strip 1bag
Concentration range: 0-200 ppb
Keep storage: below: 28C
Stability: 12 month